AMHSA Altos Hornos de México

Steelmaking Process Steel Process

Steel Process

Primary ProcessCoking


Coal is the raw material of this process.


Coke is the basic energy of blast furnaces to produce pig iron (first fusion iron).


Metallurgical coal is processed in coking plants for 18 hours in vertical ovens lined with refractory brick, to remove methane gas and other byproducts such as tar. Coke is the basic fuel for blast furnaces that produce pig iron (first fusion iron).

Primary ProcessSinterization


Sinter is used as one of the raw materials for blast furnaces.


The Flux is the raw material of this process.

Dust, iron ore fines and byproducts of the steelmaking process —mill scale from hot rolling, coke fines and steelworks sludge, among others- mix and melt to produce a porous material called sinter, which is used as one of the raw materials for blast furnaces.

Primary ProcessPelletization


The iron ore extracted from in-house mines deposits, after pulverization, is shaping into 12 mm solid balls called pellets in a balling disk. and hardened in a kiln.


The Pellet


The Coke

are the basic raw materials for blast furnaces.

Pig Iron and SteelBlast Furnace

Blast Furnace
  • Mineral in pieces

    Mineral in pieces

  • Pellets


  • Sinter


  • Coke


  • Flux


Lump iron Me, pellets, sinter, coke and fluxes are charged through the top ofthe blast furnace. As they move downward they mett as a result ot the combustion of coke and hot air blasted through the mix. The inferior heart receives the pig iron (first fusion iron) to be loaded into torpedo cars.

Pig Iron and SteelElectric Arc Furnace

La producción de acero líquido mediante este proceso se realiza mezclando: chatarra, briqueta de hierro, arrabio líquido.

Electric Arc Furnace

The Electric Arc Furnace is used to obtain steel from scrap and ferroalloys by melting the electric arc charge with graphite electrodes. They have a vat and vault cooled by water with system of rotation of the vault for the loading of scrap.

Pig Iron and SteelBof




The liquid steel is produced in a BOF

(Basic Oxygen Furnace). Pig iron (80%) and solid scrap iron (20%) are loaded into a large pear shaped container lined with refractory brick, 
and oxygen is injected to remove impurities such as carbon, phosphorous, sulphur, and silicon.

Pig Iron and SteelLadle Furnace

Ladle Furnace

The production of slab through electric furnace and continuous casting has as an intermediate facility a Ladle Furnace unit, which allows to refine the steel in a second stage for higher technical specification grades. Its design capacity is to process 1.2 million tons of liquid steel per year.

Pig Iron and SteelVaccum Degased

Vaccum Degased

To provide specific properties, liquid steel is processed and hydrogen and carbon contents are reduced for special requirements applications in the manufacture of high value-added products.

Pig Iron and SteelContinuous Casting

Liquid steel is transported to a copper oscillating mold cooled by water which solidifies the steel in the form of a transverse rectangular section called a slab.

Continuous Casting

The slab is cut to the size required for subsequent processes, according to the customer's specifications.

Hot RollingPLATE MIL


The 8.inch slab is reheated , the same as on the strip line, and reduced under heat on two reversible stands, equipped with horizontal rollers. This produces a plate that is between and 3 inches thick, Which is cooled, levelled and cut to the required dimensions.



The slab is reheated to 1260 degrees centigrade. The 8 inch thick steel slab is hot-rolled through a series Of stands equipped "ith horizontal rollers which reduce it to a thin strip between 0.06 and 0.3 inches in thickness, Which is water-cooled and subsequently coiled.


Por laminado en caliente, a partir de un bloque cuadrado denominado tocho se producen perfiles estructurales (Vigas, canales y ángulos). El tocho es procesado en una serie de pases a trabes de rodillos horizontales y verticales hasta lograr la forma deseada.


Beginning with a square length of steel called a bloom, and by means of hot-rolling, structural shapes (beams, channels and angles) are produced. A bloom is processed in a series of gasses through horizontal and vertical rollers, until the desired shapes and dimensions are obtained.

Cold RollingPickling Lines

The slabs are reheated to 1260 degrees Celsius in continuous furnaces, hot rolled through series castles (Tandem) provided with horizontal rollers that reduce the slab 8” "thick.

Pickling Lines

Cold RollingReducing Mill

Reducing Mill

In a cold-rolling process,

Through pressing and elongation, the mechanical properties and surface quality Of a steel strip are modified by means Of horizontal rolls located on 4 or 5 stands in sequence, achieving a reduction to 50-90% Of the original thickness.


Cold Rolling60” Reeversing Mill

60” Reeversing Mill

Rolling in the Reversible Mill consists in passing back and forth the steel coil until reaching the thickness desired by the customers. The number 60 refers to the maximum width of the processed roll sheet.

Cold RollingElectrolytic Cleaning Lines

Electrolytic Cleaning Lines

To remove the lubricants applied in the cold mills reduction, electrolytic washing consists of immersing the coil in horizontal tanks with an alkaline solution, then an anodic and cathodic polarization is applied and finally it is rinsed to remove residues from the surface.

Cold RollingBatch Annealing Furnaces

Batch Annealing Furnaces

The annealing of the rolled coil after being reduced in the cold mills, consists of a heating in cycles of up to 1500 degrees Celsius in circular and vertical kilns to return hardness and ductility to the steel coil.



Designed to confer maximum flatness to the steel strip, tension leveling flexing (with rollers) and elongation (with bridles) the metallic fibers that have been deformed by pressing or stretching during tempering.


Mediante procesos de electrólisis, la lámina templada previamente nivelada, decapada y lavada recibe un recubrimiento de estaño o cromo en el espesor deseado, para aumentar su resistencia a la corrosión por diversos agentes.


Through the previousb levelled and tempered strip, pickled and washing, receives a tin Or chrome plating of the desired thickness, to increase its resistance to corrosion b' various agents.



In order to achieve the desired properties of hardness and shape (flatness), the cold-rolled strip is subjected to tempering (moderate pressing and elongation) in a mill with horizontal rollers and tension bridles. The texture of the rollers determines the texture of the strip (matt
or bright).

Cold RollingHorno Eléctrico

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Horno Eléctrico

Cold RollingVaccum Degased

Vaccum Degased

To provide specific properties, liquid steel is processed and hydrogen and carbon contents are reduced for special requirements applications in the manufacture of high value-added products.